I have used a number of Green Manure strategies this Winter as part of my soil fertility building program. In fact I think that I have shifted from growing food to growing soil as my primary activity. Using a Green Manure provides a number of benefits for me, which I’ll describe below. Please note that this is an explanation of some of the things that I have done this Winter, and not an attempt to teach people how a green manure should be used.
I have been intrigued by the idea of a hotbed for years, but the trigger for this project was reading ‘Hot Beds’ by Jack First. This book is a great little resource, packed full of information on how to make a hotbed, and what to grow in one once made. Having put up a decent sized polytunnel (hoop house) last Summer, I’ve been waiting for the right time to build a hotbed. According to Jack, the right time for a full depth bed is the end of January, so that’s what I have done. This post contains lots of pictures of the hotbed, along with some text. However the construction for an outdoor bed is a little different, and if that’s what you’re looking for, you probably need the book.
A hotbed uses the heat from decomposing organic matter to raise the temperature of soil in an enclosed space, in order to extend the growing season. One reason for that is that by the time that the last frost has passsed, so have a lot of days with long day length. For example our last safe frost date is normally the first week in June. That is only 2 weeks before the Summer solstice, after which daylength starts to shorten again. By provided a warm and sheltered environment for growing crops, a hotbed will let me make use of that additional sunlight.
Jack recommends a hotbed size of about 6 ft x 6ft (180 cm x 180 cm), to provide a growing space of about 4ft x 4ft. The growing space has it’s own frame partly buried in the hotbed, with the extra space all round helping to prevent heat loss. The depth of the hotbed determines how early to start building it. 2 ft -2 ft 6 ins (60 – 75 cm) of horse manure, and wet stable bedding (straw) is supposed to maintain warmth through until the weather is warm enough.
There is a good picture of how a hotbed could be made on the page link below, about half way down the page. Spring gardening Tips.
The central bed in my polytunnel is 5 ft wide, made 18 inches tall with timber planks. The bed runs North to South, so I decided to make the hotbed at the Southern (entrance) end, to get the most from the low, early season sun. That section of the bed had settled since the Summer, and was about 6 inches below the level of the planks, so I decided to remove another 6 inches of soil, and then build a 2 ft deep hotbed, by adding another 2 planks. This would give me an overall bed size of 6 ft x 5 ft, 2 ft deep. The two pictures below show the bed just before all of the soil had been removed.
The soil that I removed filled 8 dustbins, I knew that I would need about 2/3rd of the soil to put on top of the manure and straw mix. This gives a good growing medium for seeds. The remainder will be used as the base for my seed and potting mix.
After the soil had been removed, I built up the hotbed in layers. My horse manure is given to me without bedding, so I alternated a layer of manure with a layer of poultry bedding. The bedding that I use is shredded Miscanthus. Shredding exposes more surface area to microbes which could lead to the bed heating up, and cooling down too quickly. The decomposition in a normal bed is slowed by compacting the materials. This restricts oxygen, which reduces microbial activity, and therefore slows everything down. To try and slow the process down further, I added a little more bedding than I would have done with undamaged straw, and made sure that the layers were well compacted. I’ll monitor the temperature this year to see how successful that is.
The picture above shows the first layer in place. As the bedding was dry, I watered it, and added urine, seaweed, comfrey concentrate, and the liquid from my wormeries. These additions were to improve the overall nutrient availability, and to add some extra nitrogen. This isn’t something from the hotbed book, but seemed like a good idea. However the extra nitrogen may speed the decomposition up, and make it too quick. I’ll have to monitor that. The picture below shows the hotbed after an extra 12 inches of planking had been added. The lower plank is full length, and the top one is only the length of the hotbed. I did it this way as I always have a surplus of compost, and so I have decided to raise the whole of this bed ( 40 ft x 5ft) by another 6 inches. I’ll stagger this, building a new hotbed each year, moving back along the bed.
The picture above shows the hotbed before the additional planks were added, whereas the one below shows it after all of the timber was in place. If you look carefully at the the picture below, you can see the three levels of timber. The short plank for the top layer, which steps down to a long plank added to the existing bed. Beyond that the bed sides drop again to the original level.
(The black corrugated bitumen is there to prevent a passionflower from being buried by the manure/straw mix. The material should shrink by around a half, so the bitumen can be removed when the hotbed is taken apart.)
The change in levels can be seen better in the next picture, taken from the opposite direction.
The plank to the left of the plants has been added to raise the height of the whole bed, and there is a short plank raising the height of the hotbed still further.
The picture above shows the last but one layer of the straw and manure mix in place. Originally I had intended to build the hotbed the full 2 ft deep, and then add a 4 inch layer of growing medium. The depth of the hotbed determines how long it will remain warm for. 2 ft roughly equates to three months of warmth outdoors. However I started to run short of horse manure. As I’m building the hotbed inside a polytunnel, I’m happy for the bed to cool down slightly quicker, as the protection given by the polytunnel should compensate for that.
The picture above shows the compacted top of the manure and straw mix on the left, and the 4 inch layer of soil that I added on the right. The soil is from the stuff that I removed at the beginning, but sieved. I put the larger lumps at the bottom, and the finer soil on top. Both can be seen in the picture. The sieved soil should give me a better medium for seed sowing.
The picture above shows the finished bed. The round disc is the top of a compost thermometer, which is measuring the temperature in the bottom half of the hotbed (18 inches below the surface). I have two plastic cold frames that were too flimsy for outdoor use. These will sit in the center of the hotbed, and will help to create a warm and protected environment for my early vegetables. The mild Winter (so far), and generous growing of salads late last year, has meant that I already have a surplus of early salad. So I’m going to try growing some tender plants, French beans, and sweet peppers, as well as some extra spinach and rocket (aragula).
Monitoring Hotbed Temperature
When first built, less than a week ago, the temperature was 11 C, roughly 6 degrees above the ambient temperature at the time. The temperature has since climbed to 18 C. I now need to monitor the temperature change. Planting or sowing starts once the temperature steadies, or starts to decline. In order to get a head start, I have sown some of my first batch of plants in modules, in a propagator.
Once the hotbed is ready for planting I’ll post an update.
I have spent a bit of time exploring paper chromatography as a means of testing the quality of soil and compost, thanks to the help of my friend Nigel. Now I’m not planning to explain what it is all about. Those of you who have stuck with my blog are quite able to find that out for yourselves, and the following links should help you do that. Chromatography 1. Chromatography 2. Instead I wanted to record some of the thoughts and ideas that this new technique has generated, and where I may take it in the future. Continue reading
Just a quick post to mention the first results of my Soybean Inoculant experiments. The experiments were to see if:
- Commercial soybean inoculant was able to be used for a second season despite the use by date on the packet.
- I could produce my own diy inoculant using soil from pots in which soybeans had been grown.
The reason that I need to use Soybeam Inoculant is that the native rhizobia are not present in UK soils. My reason for growing soybeans was to see if they reduced the incidence of scab in a following potato crop. I bought some inoculant from the USA, but didn’t want to keep buying it for four years until all of my beds had some soybean rhizobia present. The packet was supposed to be only good for a single season.
I planted up four Rootrainers with pre germinated soybeans, collected from plants grown last year. Three were planted up using soil from pots that had grown soybeans last year. The fourth had commercial inoculant sprinkled over the seeds when sown.
The Results So Far
Today I planted out the rootrainer that had the commercial soybean inoculant added. All of the plants had rhizobia present in root nodules, as can be seen from the pictures below.
The first picture shows the rhizobia in nodules on the roots of a soybean plant.
The second picture is of the same roots but as a close up. There were not a lot of root nodules, but it has only just warmed up, so microbial activity would have been low until recently. As the weather warms up, root colonisation should increase.
DIY Soybean Inoculant
It will be at least a week before the first of the roottrainers with the DIY soybean inoculant is planted out in my new polytunnel. I will wait until then to see if my attempts to create my own inoculant have been successful.